Prices of Corne Cattle Pultry &c.

Taken from The Lives of the Berkeleyes Vol I, p. 161, 1321

Notes on Orthography (letters & spelling) and on Units of Money at the end of this document. In general, the original spelling is retained.

Also theis Accompts will truely informe this noble Family what were the vsuall prices of Catle, Corne, Pultry and other provisions expended in the house of this lord, and as the same were vsually bought and sold in fayres and marketts duringe that twenty and seaven yeares of Edward the first raigne, wherein this Lord lived a Baron, viz\t.

Wheat the Quarter at. . . . . .2s 4d, 3s, 4s and 5s
Maslin the Quarter at. . . . . .2s, 2s 4d, 3s and 4s
Barly the Quarter at. . . . . .20d, 2s 8d, 3s 4d, and 4s
Beanes the Quarter at. . . . . .2s, 2s 8d, 3s 4d, and 4s
Otes the Quarter at. . . . . .20d, 2s, 2s 4d
Pillcorne, from the Mill, the Quarter at . . .3s, 3s 8d
An Oxe at. . . . . .10s---11s---12s
A Cowe and Calfe at. . . . . .9s---10s
A bacon Hogg at. . . . . .5s---5s 6d
A fat porket at. . . . . .2s---2s 2d
A fat sheep at. . . . . .17d---18d---20d---2s
A Lamb at. . . . . .10d---12d
A Goose at. . . . . .3d
A Capon at. . . . . .2d
A Hen at. . . . . .1d ob~
A Duck at. . . . . .1d
4 Pigeons. . . . . .1d
20 Eggs. . . . . .1d

And in the fifteenth yeare of Kinge Edward the second, when thys Lord dyed, the prices stood thus . viz\t.

Wheat, the quarter. . . 4s
Maslin the quarter. . . 3s
Barly the quarter. . . 3s
Beanes the quarter. . . 3s
Otes the quarter. . . 2s
Fetches the quarter. . . 20d
Malt of wheat the Quarter. . .6s
Malt of Otes the Quarter. . .2s 2d
Malt of Barly the Quarter,. . .4s
A Quarter of Apples. . . 10d
A Sturgeon in the xix th. of Edward the second sold for26s 8d
An oxe at. . . 20s
An Oxe hide . . . 3s 6d
A Cowe and a Calfe, at. . .12s---13s---15s
A sheep, beetweene. . . 17d and 2s
A Sheepskyn, accordinge to the growth of the fell, such as were killed for provision of the 4d., 5d., 6d.
A Lambe, at. . . 12d
A goat Skin, at. . . 4d ob~
A Goose, at. . . 3d
A Ducke, at. . . 1d q/r
The rest as before.
Threashing a quarter of wheat. . .2d
Threashing a quarter of beanes. . .1d ob~
Threashing a quarter of Oates. . .1d
Wages of a day laborer. . .ob~ q/r
A yeomans bord wages, per diem. . .1d ob~
A groome or Pages board wages per diem1d per diem

And by a proclamation in the viij th. of this kinge, none might sell wine in theire Tavernes, above iij d. the gallon.

Claus: 8. E. 2. m: 2.

In the tyme of Kinge Edward the third, generally about theis rates as followe, but the further in his longe raigne of fiftye yeares, the dearer.

Wheat the quarter. . .5s 4d---7s---10s
Barly the quarter. . .4s---5s 4d
Beanes the quarter. . .4s
Otes the quarter. . .2s 8d---3s 4d
Bay salt the quarter,. . .18d
An Oxe from 14s. to. . .24s
A Sowe and six pigs. . .5s
A boare. . .4s
A Calfe. . .2s
A Store pigge or shote. . .12d
Pigeons, the dozen. . .3d---3d ob~---4d
An Haggard Falcon. . .20s

In the residue little variation

And in the tyme of Kinge Richard the second, for the two' and twenty yeares of his raigne, the prizes of graine, Cattle and pultry, were rather cheaper then dearer, but the difference in effect that was, was in the temperature and season of the yeare.

prizes, sic for prices.
A weight of wool (beinge . 21 pound) called pondus,. . .5s.
A sacke of wool at. . .. . .. . .7li. 6s. 8d.---8li.
Onions, a Bushell. . .. . .. . .8d.
Eggs . 20 for a peny, which in 150. yeares did never rise nor fall.

And at this day, wherein I write, Anno 1622, the Comon prizes of the like Comodities in the same place, is generally thus. viz\t.

Wheat the Quarter. . .36s
Maslin the Quarter. . .26s 8d
Barly the Quarter. . .20s
Barly malt the Quarter. . .24s
Beanes the Quarter. . .20s
A draught Oxe, about. . .5l.
A Cowe and a calfe about. . .3li.10s.
A Sheepe about. . .8s
Eggs 5 for. . .. . .1d

And theis prizes stand in resemblance of the like corne and Cattle in my old former valuations; which as well for the instruction of him that delights herein, As for avoydance of the like error this lord fell into, I have clustered here togeather.

As for horses in those active old ages of the three Edwards, and of kinge Richard the second, the lord Berkeleys have payde for horses of service in the warrs, and for the saddle, and draught, as deere as nowe in our dayes; 100li., 100 markes, 50li., 30li., 20li., 10li. 20 nobles, 5li., &c.

But of yeares of dearth and of extremities, when through scarcity prizes were as deere as nowe, mentioned in divers Chronicles, I have not spoken; But desire to bee vnderstoode of the comon and usuall prizes in each ordinary and temperate yeare.

Polichr: lib: 7
cap: 38.
  com&p-tilde;i predc&t-tilde;. in Castro de Berkeley.

And theis Accompts will further informe this noble family, That when this lord was free from forren imployments, hee went often in progress from one of his Manor and farme houses to an other, scarce two miles a sunder, making his stay at each of then for one or twoe nights overseeing and directinge the forementioned husbandries, And soe backe to his standinge houses where his wife and family remayned, which was very great, as after appeareth, sometymes at Berkeley Castle, at Wotton, at Bradley, at Awre, at Portbury, And vsually in Lent, at Wike by Arlingham, for his better and neerer provision of Fish: where, for his famous weares of Rodly, Geron, and Put'house, he had a spetiall Officer called Piscator de Berkeley, whose annuall Accompts, comonly came vnto 30li. per Ann~; for fish there taken: Some of which doe speake, That of antient custome, the Constable of Berkeley Castle was vpon the first sunday in Lent allowed a salmon for his dinner, which in this Seaventh of Edward the second, cost---x d. ob~.

Monies, Weights and Measures, and Other Terms:
    Taken from Chambers' English Dictionary, except some marked [SOED] which
    are from the Shorter Oxford English Dictionar (2 Vols, Oxford).

    q/r = quadrans = farthing = quarter of a penny (0.25d)
    ob~ = obulus = halfpenny (0.5d)
    1d is a penny (denarius, plural is danarii)
    1s is a shilling (solidus, plural is solidii), worth 12d
    1li is a pound (librum, plural libra), woh 20 shillings, i.e. 240d.

    a noble was a gold coin worth 6s 8d. (80d, or 1/3 of a pound)
    a mark was the value of 8 ounces of gold or silver; 123 4d (!)

    a Quarter is eight bushels.
    a bushel is (a dry measure of) 8 gallons.
    A Quarter of corn may have weighed about a quarter of a ton at
    one time, I don't know if it still would!

    Fetch = Vetch, a grain [SOED]

    Maslin = Mixed Grain, esp. rye mixed with wheat.
    Also, bread made of the same. [SOED]

    Pilcorn = A kind of oat, in which the glumes or husks do not adhere to
    the grain, but leave it bare.  Also called pilled oats. [SOED]

    Porket = a small or young pig or hog; a young hog fattened for pork

    \t. is a superscript t with a dot centred below it;
    ob~ shuld have the ~ through the ascender of the b, for obulus, halfpenny
    q/r should be a q with a subscript 3 at a slight angle, for
    quadrans, farthing.  (the "3"is actually a kind of terminal r)
    The signs for currency (li, s, d) are superscripted with a centred dot
    beneath them on the baseline.  Simarly the th in xix th.
    Blackletter is thus marked.
    A | indicates a new page in the original, together with the folio;
    I am using the 1883 (and only printed?) edition, and page numbers (marked
    with p.nnn rather than f.nnn) refer to that edition.
    An em dash is indicated as --- and is set (1883 edition) with no spaces
    on either side.
    Notes in [brackets] are as printed;
    // Notes like this are mine (i.e. Liam's)

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